Rural women in Cuba: a contribution to public policies

The strategies, policies and regulations designed for the rural sphere must explicitly incorporate the gender-based focus.

Several studies note among the obstacles for rural women’s empowerment the overburdening of domestic responsibilities and child care, together with insufficient technical preparation and sexist stereotypes, which decrease their possibilities of going on to posts with greater complexity and better wages. Some of the studies place special emphasis on the need for a rural development and not just agricultural and livestock focus. This is why the public policies must better coordinate the provincial, gender and youth variables to study in depth the specific factors that can be determining in the localities the gender-based gaps and the falling behind that rural women experience, among them the young women, in their empowerment. Actions that deal with the solution of the conflict between the public and the private, a phenomenon that is significantly limited to women’s participation, must also be incorporated. The productive entities can play a relevant role in the promotion of new means of coordination between work and family life, as well as in access to employment and equal participation. On the other hand, the training and cultural transformation must continue being a prioritised activity in a world where the patriarchal culture is so rooted.

As was discussed in the recently concluded 7th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC), the agricultural sector is one of the priorities among the objectives, goals and indicators of sustainable development of the national strategy up to 2030. Cuba is presenting ambitious objectives in the midst of the process of updating of its economic and social model, a situation that is an immense and transcendental challenge for putting into practice efficient and effective public policies that resolve the problems of low productivity, environmental and social vulnerability that characterise the rural zones. The Cuban agricultural scenario has substantially changed as a result of a group of economic measures initiated in 2007. Nowadays, agriculture in the Caribbean nation absorbs 20 per cent of total employment; while its direct contribution to the GDP is undoubtedly lower (five per cent) since that that is where the lowest productivity can be found. According to data of the National Bureau of Statistics and Information (ONEI), the tendency toward a decrease in the national agricultural and livestock production remains the same, notwithstanding the existing potentials in the country.

In the context of the Cuban economy, women make up an important reserve of productivity, especially in the rural sphere, but the deployment of all their productive potentials is not effective if the gender inequalities that persist in their localities and hinder their full participation are not taken into account.

Without entering into contradiction with the progress made, a coordinated vision of territory, gender and rural perspective – that is, not just the agricultural – can show certain gaps in those zones which place the women who reside there in positions of greater disadvantage, a situation that not always appears reflected in the average indices.

Thus, in the spirit of continuing to advance along the path of gender equality, this work aims to analyse the equal opportunities achievements in selected rural territories from 2002 to 2015, as well as the inequalities that still persist and create situations of disadvantage for rural women.


Gender and territory

Cuban women have travelled a long way to achieve their autonomy, human development and recognition in society, thus making patent and relevant achievements in the field of equality between sexes. However, there is still a great pending task to achieve; on the one hand, that their role in the country’s socioeconomic life is placed at the height of their needs and abilities so that the domestic and caregiving activities they carry out are – in practice – fully valued and shared and, on the other, that they obtain with this a triple benefit: for themselves, for their families/communities and for the Cuban economy in general.

For several decades the government policies in Cuba have been characterised for the women focus in development, thanks to which a notable change took place in their socioeconomic and cultural situation. The social investment made during that period made it possible for the country to achieve a high human development ranking, in 67th place among 187 nations, according to 2015 reports of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and they remained in 2014 with a life expectancy of 79.4 years, a per capita income of 7,301 dollars and a low index of gender inequality, with a value of 0.356.

However, the approach to the provincial dynamics has been dominated by “so-called conventional” and “women’s” focuses that see them only as producers, which has generated partial analyses that make invisible the contributions to the territory. While, when incorporating in the framework of analysis the gender-based relations, a greater diversity of elements can be integrated: opportunities of men and women in certain spaces, actors, institutions and assets that interact in the socioeconomic processes.


Table I:

Development focuses and gender-based perspective for the territorial analysis.



Source:  Adapted from Paulson, 2011.


The studies on rural women in Cuba, on the one hand, and the gender-based inequalities in the rural world, on the other, are not classified among those that have a greater number of publications in the country. In the literature related to rural women the majority of the subjects that most stand out are the analyses made in the 1990s and subsequent studies. The studies in the 1990s are more descriptive, have not had the appropriate statistical sources, and are backed by very small samples. Starting 2000, the production has been more prolific and has benefited, on the one hand, from the improvement in the research sources, and on the other, from the backing of different international agencies (UNDP, UNICEF, OXFAM, among others) for the financing of more far-reaching studies.

Given the themes of the analyses, one can observe an important concentration of works on three key questions: the gender-based gaps in employment, the gaps for the conciliation of public and private life, the gaps in the participation of women in executive and decision-making posts in the different forms of ownership in the agricultural sector.

On the other hand, though the statistics and studies about the subject have increased, the ONEI is more centred on greater information about comparing the situation of men and women in spheres like health, education and employment, and there is still a lack of necessary disintegrated statistics – like those of the average wages of men and women on a national level – and sufficient information is not provided on the local differences in those indices. Some indicators are systematised on a provincial level, but almost none of them on the municipal level. The lack of adequate information has hindered the advances in numerous subjects of interest, since it does not allow for differentiated analyses by gender or for appropriate amount of samples.

The application, for the first time in the country, of the surveys on the use of time applied by the ONEI in 2002[1] was especially important. That study shows how the weight of non-remunerated work mainly falls on the women, in the urban as well as the rural zones, generating strong tensions and causing a “poverty of time” in their lives. Moreover, its results are a valuable tool for the local authorities since it allows for projecting actions in favour of gender equality.

The time spent in those non-remunerated tasks by women and men is greater in rural zones, in addition to the fact that women are overburdened. While the women dedicate, for example, 5.99 hours to domestic chores in Bayamo, the men in that same zone dedicate an average of 2.25 hours. While in the urban zone non-remunerated work occupies 69 per cent of the total of hours for women and 28 per cent for men, in the rural zone that proportion is 80 per cent for the first and 40 per cent for the latter, according to ONEI data from 2002.

A study carried out in Granma province in 2002 made it possible to show the wage gaps existing between men and women who hold the same job posts. The wage decreases due to work absences found in this research call attention. They were related to: health problems (60%), child and family care (22%) and maternity leave (18%). Out of the total absences registered in one and the other sex, 77 per cent corresponded to women and it was confirmed that the men rarely are absent from work for another cause not related to health. A very singular qualitative study about rural women was the publication of 50 voces y rostros de líderes campesinas cubanas (50 Voices and Faces of Cuban Women Farmer Leaders), sponsored by OXFAM-Canada and the Autonomous Region of Andalusia, which shows the advances of women in those zones and the positive impacts the educational, health, employment policy and promotion of women’s participation had on them. It especially reveals the advances in the leadership of farmer women in associations, local and community government entities, without forgetting what it cost them to open way in scenarios where a very rooted patriarchal culture has always prevailed.

The results of these studies point out that the fundamental obstacles for the empowerment of rural women continues being the overburdening of domestic responsibilities and child care, together with insufficient technical preparation, sexist stereotypes, among others; in short the patriarchal culture, all of which decreases their possibilities of going on to job posts of greater complexity and pay. In the same way, family responsibility has an impact on their absences from work and, to some extent, affects their remuneration compared to the men. Some of the studies place special emphasis on the need for a rural development focus and not just an agricultural one.


Rural women in the national sphere

The Cuban agricultural sector is currently made up by five types of productive entities: the Basic Units of Cooperative Production (UBPC), the Agricultural and Livestock Production Cooperatives (CPA), the Credit and Services Cooperatives (CCS), the private producers and the state-run sector.[2] Each one of them functions according to different forms of property and tenure; the first three are considered cooperatives. The new productive agricultural model to be developed is directed at the diversification regarding its forms of property (almost 80% of the land is under non-state forms of production), with the aim of encouraging the productive forces, in a scenario where the local is the fundamental link.agricult-camp

Despite the implementation of significant measures in the context of the transformations of the Cuban agricultural sector, such as the approval of Decree Law 300, the new regulations of the UBPCs and making agricultural sales more flexible, they have not had an impact on a greater take off in food production. Just in 2012 a total of 1.633.7 billion dollars were devoted for food imports, a figure that continues being high and represents more than 20 per cent of the country’s imports, according to data cited by economist Omar Everleny in his “Analysis of the recent evolution of the Cuban economy,” published in the book Miradas a la Economía cubana (A Look at the Cuban Economy; Caminos publishers, 2013).

The loss of importance of the agricultural sector in the Cuban economy has been reflected in women’s employment. The 2002 Population and Housing Census registered that the Cuban women employed in rural zones represented 13.7 per cent of the total of Cuban women devoted to remunerated work and 22.8 per cent of the total of rural women. Meanwhile, they represented 67 per cent of the non-economically active population in those zones, according to data from ONEI in 2002. It is estimated that there are 30 women employed for every 100 men employed in rural zones.

Though they are not a majority in the rural zones, women have an important potential as a labour force that, among other factors, is determined by the development of their levels of education in recent years. According to a series of ONEI data from 2015, rural women in Cuba represent 10.4 per cent of the total population and 20.7 per cent of the total amount of women in the country.

According to women’s participation in the National Association of Small Farmers (ANAP), an organisation that groups together 406,526 members of the CPAs and CCSs, at the end of 2012 women represented 17 per cent, according to data from the Agriculture Ministry (MINAG) in 2013. Graph 1 shows the greater presence of women in the state sector. The interviews of experts carried out for the research reveal a greater women’s participation in the cooperatives as wives, daughters and other female relatives of the cooperative members owners of the land, and not so much of women who join through a process of economic empowerment.


Graph 1:

Gender participation gaps in the different forms of ownership of the agricultural and livestock sector in Cuba. 2013.


 graf 1


Source: Drawn up by the author based on figures from the Agriculture Ministry.

Mujeres = Women

Hombres = Men

Sector estatal = State-run sector


Another considerable reserve of productivity can be seen in the non-use of their real capacity and potential as qualified labour force.  In 2015, Cuban women represented 66.3 per cent of the technical labour force. However, these results are not generally reverted in their participation in direct decision making or in the economic sectors with the greatest productivity. In 2015 they represented 47.2 per cent of the leadership posts, according to ONEI data. According to the interviews, that gap is deeper among women in rural zones.

National statistics and studies reflect a lower social development in the rural sphere, and particularly in the mountains, a factor that has an incidence on the migrations that have taken place for decades from rural to urban zones and from the mountains to the plains. All this happens despite the implemented national policy of equal territorial opportunities, which has lacked, however, a comprehensive focus of the rural world and has been centred on the agricultural sector.

The interviews of experts point out that the lower access to services of potable water, electricity, child-care centres and backing for the functioning of domestic life in general are factors that decide rural women’s falling behind in terms of empowerment.  The publication about the Environmental Panorama of Cuba showed, for 2011, an access rate of the population to potable water in rural zones of 76.7 per cent, while in the urban zones it was 97.4 per cent. The difference is deeper in home connections, very low in rural zones with coverage of only 37.3 per cent, when compared to 85.4 per cent in urban zones, the ONEI Environmental Panorama data published in 2012 indicate.IX SIMPOSIO INTERNACIONAL DE HUMEDALES

The implications that the sustained presence of this liquid at home has in the conciliation between public and domestic work is known, as is defined by the time and organisation of the daily life of women who still continue washing in rivers and must dedicate time to carrying water.

The successive agrarian transformations that have taken place in the country and the legislation have generated a system for the protection of rural women, among which is their right to inherit the land, the protection of their maternity, their work and others. ANAP sources reveal that in 2012 a group of 12,102 women were landowners, which represents 11 per cent of the total. After a period of several years of handing over land in usufruct, favoured since 2008 by Decree Law 250, out of a total of 171,237 beneficiaries, only 9.5 per cent were women, the Agriculture Ministry reported in 2013.

The 2012 Population and Housing Census reveals information on the increase in the participation of rural women in the non-state sector (see table 1). However, if these figures are compared to the participation of men in the different work forms, we see that the participation gap has not decreased. From the same report, several figures refer that on a national scale 243,914 usufructuaries have benefited, of which the number of women represents just 37 per cent.


Table II

Participation of employed persons. Non-state sector

UM: Thousands of workers


Source: 2012 Population Census.


Regarding women usufructuaries, it should be highlighted that the lands that still have not been handed over are the ones farthest away from the towns and are covered in marabú, which supposes a period of a longer period of conditioning and greater resources to be invested. And though the women have the right to credits, there’s an in-depth cultural problem: the owners of the land tend to pass on the knowhow and inheritance to the male who is most involved in its production and this reproduces in the countryside a sexist division of labour, as was presented by researcher Yenisei Bombino in her work “Oportunidades y retos de la juventud como actores estratégicos del desarrollo rural cubano” (Opportunities and Challenges of Youth as Strategic Actors of Cuban Rural Development), in 2013, during the 2nd National Workshop of Sociology Challenges and Perspective of Cuban Society.

Other female experts affirm that the mentioned figure does not reflect the true empowerment of women because many of them tend to delegate the administration of the land to their husbands and sons.

Cuba’s relation with international cooperation in its most diverse modalities has given rise to the expansion of the debate and the practice of the gender-based transversal focus in the entities that promote rural development. In that sense, the Local Human Development Programme (PDHL) and the Programme for Local Support of Agricultural Modernisation in Cuba (PALMA), just to mention some of the international actors that have contributed, especially those that are of interest to this work, have played an important role in different stages.

The PDHL gender strategy had a series of intervention modalities for the institutionalisation of a gender-based focus in Local Human Development. The territorial diagnoses made it possible to gain clarity about the differences in the behaviour of the gender-based inequalities between the provinces and municipalities where the programme operated. Meanwhile, committees were created for the assessment of the focus in some localities, numerous projects that expanded women’s participation opportunities were given a boost, together with the deployment of different forms of training that involved men as well as women specialising in gender transversalisation tools in local development projects. The project of forestry farms which brought about rural women’s access as heads of farms was especially significant.

The contributions of different non-government organisations, like ANAP, the Cuban Association of Agricultural Production (ACPA) and the Cuban Association of Agricultural and Forestry Technicians (ACTAF)[3] have been of key importance in the promotion of gender equity in the agricultural sector. In 2005 ANAP approved its gender-based strategy, thus becoming the first organisation of the agricultural sector having a strategic document of this type. Right now, the Agriculture Ministry is drawing up its own gender-based strategy. The ACPA, meanwhile, has also developed important actions regarding this, with a gender-based strategy that is applied in all the structures and has created the Rural Woman Prize, which represents an incentive to recognise those women who work in the scientific, technical and practical field of agricultural and food production.

In 2009 the Programme for Local Support of Agricultural Modernisation in Cuba (PALMA) was initiated, as a cooperation project implemented by the Agriculture Ministry and the UNDP, with European Union financing, to which another contribution of the Canadian Agency for International Development was incorporated in 2012.  One of the fundamental objectives of this joint action has been the support to the strengthening of skills and the generation of good practices that contribute to consolidate the work of the agricultural sector on a local level, with emphasis on the municipalisation and development of a more efficient work in food security, as well as in the cooperatives and the state-run services entities.

The existing regional experience in the implementation of the Working System with Gender Equity (SGEG) is being used. PALMA is generating a demonstrative experience for the country, geared at promoting work with gender equity in small and medium local entities that are involved in food security.  This initiative has been called Gender Equity for Food Security Quality Work (IGECSA), which shares common interests with the Federation of Cuban Women (FMC), the Agriculture Ministry and ANAP.

The IGECSA initiative of the PALMA programme started being applied in the municipalities of Cabaiguán, Santiago de Cuba and Jiguaní in 10 entities of the agricultural sector. A diagnosis was made in them that dealt with five central issues: 1) Selection and hiring of personnel, 2) professional development, 3) work-family life conciliation, 4) co-responsibility, labour atmosphere and health, and 5) inclusive communication and non-sexist image.

The diagnosis in the cooperatives and services entities of the selected municipalities and the consultation of other official sources revealed persistent gender gaps in:

Participation in different forms of ownership. A greater presence of women can be seen in the state-run sector than in the non-state forms of production. For example, in the municipality of Cabaiguán, 62 per cent of the women work in the state-run sector, while only 16.6 per cent belong to the CPAs and 22 per cent to the CCSs.


Graph 2:

Gaps in labour participation of men and women in municipality of Cabaiguán.

 graf 2

Drawn up by the author based on ONEI data


Mujeres = Women

Hombres = Men

Sector estatal = State-run sector


Selection and hiring of personnel. Men are privileged from the very notifications for job posts considered “masculine” like farm technicians, milking.  This is a problem that goes beyond those localities. Bombino affirms that in the research on rural women in which she has participated, stereotyped practices have been identified that masculinise milking due to the need to getting up early. Women prevail in administrative and service posts.

Horizontal segregation in the service cooperatives and institutions in the agricultural sector. In the municipality of Jiguaní women are a majority as labour force in the category of technicians, while the men in the category of machinists.


Graph 3: Women’s occupational segregation in Jiguaní.

 graf 3


Mujeres… = Working women (thousands)

Operarios = Machinists

Tecnicos = Technicians

Administrativos = Administrative posts

Servicios = Services


Working men according to occupational category in municipality of Jiguaní

graf 4ç


Hombres… = Working men (thousands)

Operarios = Machinists

Tecnicos = Technicians

Administrativos = Administrative posts

Servicios = Services



Source: Drawn up by the author based on data from the 2012 Municipal Statistical Yearbook.


Purchase of supplies for the labour activity: The purchasing decisions are gender biased; the purchase of working clothes, boots and other tools for activities carried out by men is prioritised and there isn’t a budget for the working needs of women cooperative members.

Gender gaps in wages. They are noticed because the women work in the less valued professions (for example in the seed farms and not in the harvest) and due to vertical segregation (they are employed in the worst paid sectors, in the worst paid crops, temporary jobs and work with sheep, pigs or goats); because of the work absences related to their role of caregivers. Another example can be found in the group payment systems applied in the Comprehensive Forestry Farms that make invisible women’s contribution to production.

Gaps in the possession of assets. Less possession of assets among women as a result of a patriarchal culture that privileges men as beneficiaries of inheritances and successions. The studies have demonstrated that young women are at a disadvantage compared to young men because the latter inherit the family capital as a result of a patriarchal cultural practice that has lasted for centuries and continues being reproduced

Gaps in the conciliation of public and private life: It has to do with less development in the already mentioned social services. As a tendency, in the rural zones there are few institutions for the care of children and the elderly so that women can pass on that responsibility to others to be able to incorporate themselves to remunerated work. Though the health indicators do not reflect considerable territorial inequalities, and even in some cases those for the infant mortality in children less than a year old and women’s mortality due to diverse types of diseases are better in the provinces, with a lower value of the Territorial Human Development Index (THDI) than the country’s capital, some experts point out that, in the health and educational reform taking place at present, the dismantling of the services in many zones of difficult access, especially in the mountains, could have a negative impact in the future. In the entities selected by IGECSA it was detected that there did not exist a strategy to unburden women of the domestic chores. The increase in early pregnancies in those zones is a social problem of concern, especially in the mountains. Official data at the most allows us to recognise the differences between the provinces in 2012: in Sancti Spíritus, 13 per cent of the mothers were adolescents; in Granma, 17 per cent and in Santiago de Cuba, 14.4 per cent. The lack of alternative maternity projects, due to the lower social development, can be a factor that is having an influence.

Gap in participation in the principal spaces of decision making on a territorial level: People’s Power, business system and other organisations: Though on a national level the participation of women as heads of farmer associations, in cooperatives and municipal and local government functions has increased, all the potential women have to organise and direct in those zones still has been unable to be used, which leads to the supposition that the difference between men and women is even deeper in these spaces than in others. The IGECSA diagnosis revealed that there isn’t a strategy for the promotion of women to leadership posts in the studied entities.  The territorial statistics on the participation of women in the 2007/2008 legislature of the National Assembly reveal differences at those levels in the territories studied here: Sancti Spíritus had 52 per cent of women MPs; Granma 38.6 per cent and Santiago de Cuba, 39.6 per cent, according to the 2010 Millennium Development Goal report of the Institute of Economic Studies (Inie).

The questionnaire applied about gender stereotypes reveals that, in a considerable percentage of the population of those rural localities, the traditional focuses of women caregivers, men heads of households, the belief in jobs suitable for women and others for men (livestock raising and physical labour for men and documents for women), that the sons must perpetuate the agricultural work practices, among others, are still rooted. Those focuses are shared by a large amount of persons, of men as well as of women, even when the disagreement with respect to this is greater among the women. The culture established on traditional ideas that reproduce sexism continues being a factor that restricts the development of rural women.


Implications of public policies

  1. The public policies, designed and executed by the different government authorities, must better coordinate the territory, gender and youth variables to deal in depth with the specific factors that can be determining the gender and falling behind gaps being experienced by rural women, among them the young ones, in the process of their empowerment. A greater autonomy of the local governments is required, without scorning their relation with the national focuses that determine the universal character of just policies.
  2. It is urgent to advance toward a more comprehensive vision of development in those territories, less centred on the agricultural and more on rural development, which points toward the prioritisation of investment in those zones and favouring the employment of women. The rural development, and not agricultural, focus would make it possible to identify new sources of employment that transcend that sector and a better coordination between the social, economic, cultural and political, transversalised by goals of social equity, especially of gender. It would be necessary, in politics, to have differentiated plans for urban and rural zones, as well as for rural communities in the plains and in the mountains, where the gender inequalities do not have the same connotation. The Turquino Plan has been an example of that comprehensive point of view in the mountains, but today it is insufficient. In this way a reduction in migrations, the retention of young people and control over aging could be achieved.
  3. Local development is an important sphere of intervention for the actions in favour of gender equity, which is why it is necessary to strengthen the role of the local governments and their real capacities to deal with the challenges that gender inequalities are facing and the rural development of the country under the current conditions.
  4. In order to incorporate a focus that recognises the socioeconomic differences from the start that characterise the localities and inequalities that can still be observed between sexes it is necessary to continue advancing in the production of statistics with a coordinated notion of gender and territory, especially in the rural sphere. They must reflect the comprehensive situation of the wellbeing achieved in all spheres of human activity.
  5. In addition, the improvement of the instruments for obtaining information would rectify the voids in the registering of time that women devote to all the work of the agricultural cycles, especially the simultaneousness of the tasks, and would allow for evaluating their contribution to the national economy. With this greater attention would also be paid to the economic policies that have a negative impact on women’s position and would lay the foundations for the improvement of public policies.
  6. The approved strategies, policies and regulations designed for the rural sphere must explicitly incorporate the gender focus through the use of incentives and specific regulations (employment policy, credit policy, differentiated taxes, etc.).
  7. It is indispensable to continue strengthening the processes that have been initiated by the political actors and the international cooperation mentioned here regarding the transversalisation of gender, drawing up of programmes, projects and development strategies.
  8. The training and cultural transformation must continue being a prioritised activity in a world where the patriarchal culture is so rooted. It is essential to continue the training on all issues of development sensitive to the gender analysis and place emphasis on the executives who design and control the application of the policies.
  9. Building a strategy for the spread of good experiences with a business and territorial focus, which incorporate the gender perspective and have achieved changes in cultural practices.
  10. The policies must incorporate actions that deal with the solution of the conflict between the public and the private, a phenomenon that is restricting significantly women’s participation. The productive entities can play a relevant role in the promotion of new modalities of coordination between work and family life, as well as in the access to employment and equal participation.
  11. The integration of equity in the different spheres of the organisation of the enterprises must respond to focuses of economy of solidarity and social responsibility, making it possible to identify the most strategic points of intervention for gender equality, investing in the social development of the communities and promoting the participation of women. Those strategies must be promoted in the business, cooperative and private sector, and emphasise on the increase of women’s employment.
  12. What has been said in the research presents the urgent need to promote specific policies and measures directed at young populations, especially the rural ones, where the importance of young people for sustainability of the rural population is recognised.
  13. Create economic incentive mechanisms for the enterprises that have incorporated the gender focus to the practice of all its economic work, reducing the gaps between men and women. Work in the formulation of policies that promote intraorganisational or intraenterprise management practices in favour of equality (regulations, certifications, management systems).



  • National Bureau of Statistics and Information 2015. 2015 Statistical Yearbook. (Cuba: ONEI)
  • PALMA/IGECSA 2009 Guiding Document. Programme for Local Support to Agricultural Modernisation in Cuba. Gender Equality for Food Security Quality Work. (Havana: MINAG-UNDP-European Union)
  • PALMA/IGECSA. Database on applied questionnaires.
  • UNDP-PDHL/Cuba 2013 Systematisation of the Local Human Development Programme in Cuba between 1998 and 2012.
  • Triana, Juan 2013 “¿Hace falta una política para crecer? In: Omar Everleny and Ricardo Torres (comps) Economía cubana, ensayos para una restructuración. (Havana: CEEC).





[1] The survey covered the urban and rural parts of the municipalities of Pinar del Río, San Juan y Martínez, Guisa and Bayamo, as well as the entire municipality of Old Havana, which is completely urban (ONEI, 2002).

[2] The CPAs were formed based on farmers owners of land who contributed them and the rest of the means of production, under the principle of voluntariness. The CCSs were made up voluntarily by farmers who benefited from the agrarian reform laws; they joined to receive certain benefits like bank credits, the acquirement of cutting-edge technology, as well as favouring marketing, prices, among other aspects. The UBPCs were created with groups of workers of the state-run enterprises who were handed over land under conditions of indefinite usufruct.


[3] National Association of Small Farmers (ANAP), Association of Agricultural Production Cooperatives (ACPA) and Cuban Association of Agricultural and Forestry Technicians (ACTAF)

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